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Frequently Asked Questions

About Auth.js

Is Auth.js commercial software?

Auth.js is an open-source project built by individual contributors.

It is not commercial software and is not associated with a commercial organization.


What databases does Auth.js support?

You can use Auth.js with MySQL, MariaDB, Postgres, MongoDB and SQLite or without a database. (See our using a database adapter guide).

You can use also Auth.js with any database using a custom database adapter, or by using a custom credentials authentication provider - e.g. to support signing in with a username and password stored in an existing database.

What authentication services does Auth.js support?

Auth.js includes built-in support for signing in with  (See also: Providers)

Auth.js also supports email for passwordless sign-in, which is useful for account recovery or for people who are not able to use an account with the configured OAuth services (e.g. due to service outage, account suspension or otherwise becoming locked out of an account).

You can also use a custom-based provider to support signing in with a username and password stored in an external database and/or using two-factor authentication.

Does Auth.js support signing in with a username and password?

Auth.js is designed to avoid the need to store passwords for user accounts.

If you have an existing database of usernames and passwords, you can use a custom credentials provider to allow signing in with a username and password stored in an existing database.

If you use a custom credentials provider user accounts will not be persisted in a database by Auth.js (even if one is configured). The option to use JSON Web Tokens for session tokens (which allow sign-in without using a session database) must be enabled to use a custom credentials provider.

Can I use Auth.js with a website that does not use Next.js?

Auth.js is designed for use with Next.js and Serverless.

If you are using a different framework for your website, you can create a website that handles sign-in with Next.js and then access those sessions on a website that does not use Next.js as long as the websites are on the same domain.

If you use Auth.js on a website with a different subdomain than the rest of your website (e.g. vs you will need to set a custom cookie domain policy for the Session Token cookie. (See also: Cookies)

Auth.js does not currently support automatically signing into sites on different top-level domains (e.g. vs using a single session.

Can I use Auth.js with React Native?

Auth.js is designed as a secure, confidential client and implements a server-side authentication flow.

It is not intended to be used in native applications on desktop or mobile applications, which typically implement public clients (e.g. with client/secrets embedded in the application).

Is Auth.js supporting TypeScript?

Yes! Check out the TypeScript docs

Is Auth.js compatible with Next.js 12 Middleware?

Next.js Middleware is supported. Head over to this page


What databases are supported by Auth.js?

Auth.js can be used with MySQL, Postgres, MongoDB, SQLite and compatible databases (e.g. MariaDB, Amazon Aurora, Amazon DocumentDB…) or with no database.

It also provides an Adapter API which allows you to connect it to any database.

What does Auth.js use databases for?

Databases in Auth.js are used for persisting users, OAuth accounts, email sign-in tokens and sessions.

Specifying a database is optional if you don't need to persist user data or support email sign-in. If you don't specify a database then JSON Web Tokens will be enabled for session storage and used to store session data.

If you are using a database with Auth.js, you can still explicitly enable JSON Web Tokens for sessions (instead of using database sessions).

Should I use a database?

  • Using Auth.js without a database works well for internal tools - where you need to control who can sign in, but when you do not need to create user accounts for them in your application.

  • Using Auth.js with a database is usually a better approach for a consumer-facing application where you need to persist accounts (e.g. for billing, to contact customers, etc).

What database should I use?

Managed database solutions for MySQL, Postgres and MongoDB (and compatible databases) are well supported by cloud providers such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft and Atlas.

If you are deploying directly to a particular cloud platform you may also want to consider serverless database offerings they have (e.g. Amazon Aurora Serverless on AWS).


Parts of this section have been moved to their page](/security).

How do I get Refresh Tokens and Access Tokens for an OAuth account?

Auth.js provides a solution for authentication, session management and user account creation.

Auth.js records Refresh Tokens and Access Tokens on sign-in (if supplied by the provider) and it will pass them, along with the User ID, Provider and Provider Account ID, to either:

  1. A database - if a database connection string is provided
  2. The JSON Web Token callback - if JWT sessions are enabled (e.g. if no database is specified)

You can then look them up from the database or persist them to the JSON Web Token.

Note: Auth.js does not currently handle Access Token rotation for OAuth providers for you, however, you can check out this tutorial if you want to implement it.

When I sign in with another account with the same email address, why are accounts not linked automatically?

Automatic account linking on sign-in is not secure between arbitrary providers - except for allowing users to sign in via email addresses as a fallback (as they must verify their email address as part of the flow).

When an email address is associated with an OAuth account it does not necessarily mean that it has been verified as belonging to the account holder — how email address verification is handled is not part of the OAuth specification and varies between providers (e.g. some do not verify first, some do verify first, others return metadata indicating the verification status).

With automatic account linking on sign-in, this can be exploited by bad parties to hijack accounts by creating an OAuth account associated with the email address of another user.

For this reason, it is not secure to automatically link accounts between arbitrary providers on sign-in, which is why this feature is generally not provided by an authentication service and is not provided by Auth.js.

Automatic account linking is seen on some sites, sometimes insecurely. It can be technically possible to do automatic account linking securely if you trust all the providers involved to ensure they have securely verified the email address associated with the account, but requires placing trust (and transferring the risk) to those providers to handle the process securely.

Examples of scenarios where this is secure include an OAuth provider you control (e.g. that only authorizes users internal to your organization) or a provider you explicitly trust to have verified the users' email address.

Automatic account linking is not a planned feature of Auth.js, however, there is scope to improve the user experience of account linking and of handling this flow, securely. Typically this involves providing a fallback option to sign in via email, which is already possible (and recommended), but the current implementation of this flow could be improved.

Providing support for secure account linking and unlinking of additional providers - which can only be done if a user is already signed in - was originally a feature in v1.x but has not been present since v2.0, and is planned to return in a future release.

Feature Requests

Why doesn't Auth.js support [a particular feature]?

Auth.js is an open-source project built by individual contributors who are volunteers writing code and providing support in their spare time.

If you would like Auth.js to support a particular feature, the best way to help make it happen is to raise a feature request describing the feature and offer to work with other contributors to develop and test it.

If you are not able to develop a feature yourself, you can offer to sponsor someone to work on it.

I disagree with a design decision, how can I change your mind?

Product design decisions on Auth.js are made by core team members.

You can raise suggestions as feature requests for enhancement.

Requests that provide the detail requested in the template and follow the format requested may be more likely to be supported, as additional detail prompted in the templates often provides important context.

Ultimately if your request is not accepted or is not actively in development, you are always free to fork the project under the terms of the ISC License.

JSON Web Tokens

Does Auth.js use JSON Web Tokens?

Auth.js by default uses JSON Web Tokens for saving the user's session. However, if you use a database adapter, the database will be used to persist the user's session. You can force the usage of JWT when using a database through the configuration options. Since v4 all our JWTs are now encrypted by default with A256GCM.

What are the advantages of JSON Web Tokens?

JSON Web Tokens can be used for session tokens, but are also used for lots of other things, such as sending signed objects between services in authentication flows.

  • Advantages of using a JWT as a session token include that they do not require a database to store sessions, this can be faster and cheaper to run and easier to scale.

  • JSON Web Tokens in Auth.js are secured using cryptographic encryption (JWE) to store the included information directly in a JWT session token. You may then use the token to pass information between services and APIs on the same domain without having to contact a database to verify the included information.

  • You can use JWT to securely store information you do not mind the client knowing even without encryption, as the JWT is stored in a server-readable-only cookie so data in the JWT is not accessible to third-party JavaScript running on your site.

What are the disadvantages of JSON Web Tokens?

  • It's difficult to invalidate a JSON Web Token - doing so requires maintaining a server-side blocklist of the tokens (at least until they expire) and checking every token against the list every time a token is presented.

    Shorter session expiry times are used when using JSON Web Tokens as session tokens to allow sessions to be invalidated sooner and simplify this problem.

    Auth.js client includes advanced features to mitigate the downsides of using shorter session expiry times on the user experience, including automatic session token rotation, optionally sending keep-alive messages to prevent short-lived sessions from expiring if there is a window or tab opened, background re-validation, and automatic tab/window syncing that keeps sessions in sync across windows any time session state changes or a window or tab gains or loses focus.

  • As with database session tokens, JSON Web Tokens are limited in the amount of data you can store in them. There is typically a limit of around 4096 bytes per cookie, though the exact limit varies between browsers, proxies and hosting services. If you want to support most browsers, then do not exceed 4096 bytes per cookie. If you want to save more data, you will need to persist your sessions in a database (Source:

    The more data you try to store in a token and the more other cookies you set, the closer you will come to this limit. Auth.js uses cookie chunking so that cookies over the 4kb limit get split and reassembled upon parsing. However, since this data needs to be transmitted on every request, in case you wish to store more than ~4 KB of data you're probably at the point where you want to store a unique ID in the token and persist the data elsewhere (e.g. in a server-side key/value store).

  • Data stored in an encrypted JSON Web Token (JWE) may be compromised at some point.

    Even if appropriately configured, information stored in an encrypted JWT should not be assumed to be impossible to decrypt at some point - e.g. due to the discovery of a defect or advances in technology.

    Avoid storing any data in a token that might be problematic if it were to be decrypted in the future.

  • If you do not explicitly specify a secret for Auth.js, existing sessions will be invalidated any time your Auth.js configuration changes, as Auth.js will default to an auto-generated secret. Since v4 this only impacts development and generating a secret is required in production.

Are JSON Web Tokens secure?

By default, tokens are encrypted (JWE).

You can specify other valid algorithms - as specified in RFC 7518 - with either a secret (for symmetric encryption) or a public/private key pair (for asymmetric encryption).

Using explicit public/private keys for signing is strongly recommended.

What signing and encryption standards does Auth.js support?